The rising prevalence of dental erosion and dentin hypersensitivity has led to the emergence of more and more toothpastes on the market that claim to treat these problems. While no such toothpaste existed 20 years ago, today, many brands with different attributes are being offered.
However, a study conducted at the University of Bern in Switzerland with the participation of a researcher supported by a scholarship from the São Paulo Research Foundation — FAPESP showed that none of the nine analyzed toothpastes was capable of mitigating enamel surface loss, a key factor in tooth erosion and dentin hypersensitivity.
“Research has shown that dentin must be exposed with open tubules in order for there to be hypersensitivity, and erosion is one of the causes of dentin exposure. This is why, in our study, we analyzed toothpastes that claim to be anti-erosive and/or desensitizing,” said Samira Helena João-Souza, a PhD scholar at the University of São Paulo’s School of Dentistry (FO-USP) in Brazil and first author of the article.
According to an article published in Scientific Reports, all of the tested toothpastes caused different amounts of enamel surface loss, and none of the toothpastes afforded protection against enamel erosion and abrasion.
The authors of the study stressed that these toothpastes perform a function but that they should be used as a complement, not as a treatment, strictly speaking. According to João-Souza, at least three factors are required: treatment prescribed by a dentist, use of an appropriate toothpaste, and a change in lifestyle, especially diet.
“Dental erosion is multifactorial. It has to do with brushing, and above all, with diet. Food and drink are increasingly acidic as a result of industrial processing,” she said.
The researcher highlights that dental erosion is a chronic loss of dental hard tissue caused by acid without bacterial involvement — unlike caries, which is bacteria-related. When it is associated with mechanical action, such as brushing, it results in erosive wear. In these situations, patients typically experience discomfort when they drink or eat something cold, hot or sweet.
“They come to the clinic with the complaint that they have caries, but actually, the problem is caused by dentin exposure due to improper brushing with very abrasive toothpaste, for example, combined with frequent consumption of large amounts of acidic foods and beverages,” said Professor Ana Cecília Corrêa Aranha, João-Souza’s supervisor and a co-author of the article.
In our clinical work, we see patients with this problem in the cervical region between [the] gum and tooth. The enamel in this region is thinner and more susceptible to the problem,” she added.